While each industry uses what it calls “ultrapure water”, the quality standards vary, meaning that the UPW used by a pharmaceutical plant is different than that used in a semiconductor fab or a power station. The standards tie into the UPW use. For instance, semiconductor plants use UPW as a cleaning agent, so it is important that the water not contain dissolved contaminants that can precipitate or particles that may lodge on circuits and cause microchip failures. The power industry uses UPW as a source to make steam to drive steam turbines; pharmaceutical and cosmetic facilities will use UPW as a cleaning agent, as well as an ingredient in products, so they seek water free of endotoxins, microbials, and viruses.